Psychological Defense Mechanisms

7 Jun

In conditions of stress, psychological adaptation of the person occurs mainly through two mechanisms: psychological defense and coping mechanisms. The same life events can have different stress loads depending on their subjective assessment. Douglas Elliman does not necessarily agree. Stressful event begins with an assessment of any internal (eg, thought) or external (eg, criticism) stimulus, the result is a coping process. Coping reaction triggered when the complexity of the problem exceeds the energy output of habitual reactions. If the requirements are estimated as a back-breaking situation, then can be overcome, a form of psychological protection. In general, the continuum psychological coping mechanisms of regulation play a compensatory function, and psychological defense mechanisms occupy the last level in the adaptation, the level of decompensation. In the following diagram displays two This style may respond to adverse events (Figure 1).

People who resort to psychological defense mechanisms: perceive the world as a source of danger, characterized by low self-esteem, pessimistic. People use of coping mechanisms (coping): realists, optimists, are characterized by positive self-esteem, and strongly expressed achievement motivation. There are two styles in response to a problem situation: Problem-oriented (problem-focused) style, a rational analysis of problems associated with the creation and implementation of the plan permits a difficult situation and is manifested in such behaviors as self-incident analysis, recourse to the other, searching for more information. Subjectively-oriented (emotion-focused) style, a consequence of emotional response to the situation, is not accompanied by concrete actions, and is manifested in the form trying not to think about the problem, the involvement of others in their experience, the desire to forget in a dream, to dissolve their troubles in alcohol, drug or compensate for the negative emotions with food. .

The Functional

17 Oct

The spite to criticize the onslaughts of Drash and Tudor in direction to a mannering etiology of the TEA, all seems to agree to the possibility, necessity and utility of if taking in consideration the fact of that determined ambient contingencies they are responsible for keeping characteristically autistas behaviors, being based, then, in the premise of that these behaviors are sensible to its consequences. However, for these authors, this possibility only must be partially responsible for the explanation of the etiology of the autismo, has seen that the neurobiolgicos factors must compose the second half of the theory concerning the origin of the TEA. Operative verbal behavior and characterization of verbal the verbal behavior first were cited and explained under perspective of the Analysis of the Behavior for Skinner in 1957. The basic tool for inquiry of the verbal behavior is, thus, the proper functional analysis. The functional analysis of the behavior is, then, used to become fullfilled the description and manipulation of the relations between the events of a mannering contingency. For this boarding Analysis of the Behavior, therefore, the behavior is the study object that tries to inside describe of which definitive cirscunstncias (a) the individual answers of that form (r) and which consequncias if they follow to this reply, of form to keep it (c). Any changes in the circumstances, the reply or the consequncias, the relation, and therefore, the behavior will modify all. (Banaco, 1998, p.78) Delitti (1997) affirms that identifying the 0 variable and proving the contingencies that control the behavior, it is possible to raise hypotheses concerning the acquisition and maintenance of the repertoires mannering. This inquiry of as such behaviors had been strengthened and kept in the repertoire of the individual it must be carried through through the functional analysis of these behaviors and its relation with the environment. Of this form, Barros (2003) affirms that the verbal behavior follows the same principles of the too much operative mannering repertoires, that is, instrument of analysis the same used to examine behaviors not-verbal also must be used for the verbal repertoires.

Relationship

20 Apr

It will be that they had been the transformations after-relationships that are producing divergence or that from ‘ will not be determined moment to the part; ‘ oculta’ ‘ of the other, the one that you did not give attention, but now is giving, started to have one weight very great in the relationship. Having as approach to the other face of the relationship, I decided to write some lines on this subject, as plus a tool if to think, when one is in search of a steady relationship. DEVELOPMENT we are educated since small searching and valuing the part ‘ ‘ boa’ ‘ of the person. That one that each one inside finds positive of its criterion. Thus giving, a great importance to this part, forgetting to give to attention in the part ‘ ‘ ruim’ ‘ , ‘ ‘ negativa’ ‘ , that one that bothers in them. The one that does not correspond to our criteria.

We live the illusion that the part ‘ ‘ positiva’ ‘ , that one that we value and we want to share, has in itself, the power to overlap to ‘ ‘ negativa’ ‘ , the one that we do not like and we do not want to share, and that this, will not have no meaning and importance in the relationship. ‘ ‘ It will be, be, be …………! ‘ ‘. We go to think. To share with good, pleasant, positive things is easy, therefore little it demands of us and it does not bother in them. It is always rewarding and it does not create problem, quarrel, disagreements, points of discord, etc. Now, imagines that it has that to eat an apple that presents a deteriorated part..

Autism and the Environment

10 Jun

The importance given to the environment as probable .causing factor of the TEA she is small between the scientists, although the existing treatments most effective currently this upheaval to involve the manipulation of ambient contingencies. Sundberg (2004) seems to support itself more in the hypothesis of that the autismo is multicaused by interactions between genetic 0 variable, biological and ambient. However, for some analysts of the behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004; Ferster, 1961; Malott, the 2004) TEA would be better described as an upheaval that is shaped by contingencies of verbal behaviors whose beginning if would give, in general way, during the first year of life. These authors formulate its theories concerning the etiology of the TEA based on the hypothesis of that this upheaval if develops entirely under the action of specific and completely identifiable contingencies of reinforcing. Ferster (1961) standed out that the disruptive behaviors of an individual with TEA can be kept by the effect in its parents or cuidadores, because they function as aversivo stimulaton that can be discontinued case the cuidador it it supplies a stiffener one. still, it observed that these aversivos behaviors, with passing of the time, probably will be fortified by continuous reinforcing and will predominate on other appropriate behaviors for the age where the child if finds. Following the same line of thought, Drash and Tudor (2004) they base its mannering theory of the TEA in six paradigms of contingencies that would explain the sprouting of the characteristic behaviors of this upheaval: 1) Reinforcing of the verbal behavior of aversivo vocal control, such as to cry or to cry out, or other behaviors of avoidance that can be incompatible with the acquisition of appropriate verbal behaviors for the age; 2) Reinforcing of the verbal behavior of gesticulatrio control and other forms of not-vocal mandos; 3) Anticipation of necessities of the child and consequence reinforcing of a not-responsive repertoire that hinders the reinforcement of vocal and not-vocal mandos; 4) Extinguishing of verbal behaviors; 5) Interaction between factors organic, or vain organic, and mannering factors; 6) Not-suppression of disruptive behaviors and insufficience in establishing instrucional control verbal initial.

Center De Ateno Psicossocial – Caps

11 Dec

The Centers of Ateno Psicossocial (CAPS) are units intensive and daily deatendimento to the carriers of serious psychic suffering, constituting an alternative to the model centered in the psychiatric hospital, characterized for internments of long permanence and regimen to put in a home. The Centrosde Attention, in contrast, allows that the users remain next to the suasfamlias and communities. The first CAPS of the country appears in March of 1987, with ainaugurao of the CAPS Luis of the Cerqueira Rock, in the City of So Paulo, serious erepresenta the effective implementation of a new model of attention in health mentalpara expressive fraction of the mental sick people (psychotic and neurotics) taken care of in the public net, being its constituted iderio of proposals dirigidas overcoming of the limitations evidenced for the binomial clinic-hospitalpsiquitrico in the treatment and whitewashing of its clientele (ONOCKO-CAMPOS, 2006). Inserted in the context politician of redemocratizao of the country enas fights for the revision of conceptual landmarks, of the forms of attention and definanciamento of the actions of mental health that if had fortified from finalda decade of 1980 in Latin America and Brazil, the CAPS Luis of the Cerqueira Rock (or CAPS Itapeva), together with the Nuclei of Ateno Psicossocial (NAPS), inaugurated from 1989, in Saints, will go to consist in refernciaobrigatria for the implantation of services substitutes to the lunatic asylum in nossopas (ONOCKO-CAMPOS, 2006). However, they will be the santistas NAPS that, through funcionamentoterritorializado, the 24 hours/day, with destined stream beds the patients in crisis eoperando in net with other services, that will more accomplish significativoavano in the overcoming of the model centered in the psychiatric hospitals, ambulatory and psychiatric urgencies, accomplishing true rupturaparadigmtica in relation to the previous model (ONOCKO-CAMPOS, 2006) These two initiatives will be precursory of same types nos in the State of So Paulo, but in all Brazil, a time that will subsidize oMinistrio of the Health in the formularization of Portaria N. .